商务部的数据表明，中国对非洲投资逐年递增，累计达到了 170亿美元，中国在非洲投资企业已超 2000家，涉及采矿、建筑、金融、制造、电信、农业等诸多领域，项目遍及 50余国家。在非洲所有的外来投资中，有十分之一来自中国。
据中国的官方法律媒体《法制日报》报道，目前，中国投资者手握着与非洲合作的大大小小的各类合同 2800份，如劳务合同、工程合同、贸易合同等，其中比较大的民营企业占了 45%。
据媒体公开报道，加纳政府 2012年宣布外国矿业公司向政府缴纳的公司税由 25%提高到 35%，对所有矿业公司征收 10%的超额利润税；一些在矿场地区发生的恶性事件，表面上是劳资纠纷，深层原因是“国家资源主义”思潮的外在表现。由此可见，“国家资源主义”正逐渐上升为一种国家意志，旨在加强资源国对本国资源的控制。
国家资源主义 Resource nationalism
Resource Nationalism remains a key theme in Africa's mining industry. The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy defines "Resource Nationalism" as the desire of the people of resource-rich countries to derive increasing economic benefit from their natural resources and their governments' drives to exercise greater control of natural resources. At a macro level, resource nationalism can be seen in the economic and social initiatives introduced by host governments. Indigenisation laws are one manifestation of resource nationalism, a trend identified by Ernst & Young in its 2012~2013 Mining & Metals report as topping the concerns of mining and metals companies.
This is not an Africa specific trend, however, and we can find examples of both economic and social resource nationalism in a variety of international jurisdictions. Australia introduced a resource rent tax on coal and iron ore. Similarly, Canada requires approval of certain foreign investments under a 1985 law and the United Kingdom recently raised windfall taxes on North Sea oil from 20% to 32%. Other non-African countries that have recently increased taxes and royalties include Mongolia, Poland and the USA, to name a few. In addition, Brazil, Indonesia and Vietnam have announced beneficiation strategies and indigenisation efforts can be seen in China, India and Mongolia through foreign ownership caps and restrictions.
经济资源国家主义 Economic resource nationalism
Economic Resource Nationalism is the more prevalent form of resource nationalism at present and can be seen in governments revising tax and royalty polices, concession agreements and ownership requirements to maximise revenue streams. For example, the governments of Angola, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea, Ghana, Liberia, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia, to name but a few, have announced or enacted adjustments to their mining and tax regimes in recent years.
Governments may also themselves, or through state owned entities, require a free carry interest in mining assets and in some instances may also include an option to take up a further interest in the mining asset on a commercial basis (e.g. Guinea).
Economic resource nationalism can be seen in changes to:
税基的改变 Change in tax base
暴利税 Windfall tax
资源租赁税 Resource rent tax
资本利得税 Capital gains tax
进出口税 Import and export levies
海关监管 Customs controls
干股权益 Free carry interest
合同审查和审计 Contract reviews and audits
It allows the state to generate significant amounts of revenue from profitable mining entities. It is both strategic and revenue orientated.
社会资源国家主义 Social resource nationalism
Social resource nationalism is most commonly seen in the form of local ownership requirements in mineral projects This is evident in South Africa's 26% black economic empowerment (BEE) requirement and Zimbabwe's 51% indigenisation policy.
In Mozambique, local participation is achieved by individuals acquiring shares in listed companies at a nominal value. Tanzania has no direct restrictions on foreign investment or commodity ownership, however there are some licencing restrictions in place. Zambia reserves artisans'mining rights for Zambian citizens only. In Liberia, class B mining licences are restricted to a minimum of 60% local ownership and in Swaziland 10% of Government shareholding is reserved for acquisition, at fair market value, by Swazi citizens or entities which are majority-owned by Swazi citizens. Precious mineral exploitation is reserved for Gabonese citizens or companies with a minimum of 51% Gabonese shareholding. Local equity participation sits at 35% for Kenyan license holders.
In Namibia, local participation is under discussion, but not yet mandated, in the form of the draft Mining Charter for Sustainable Broad-based Transformation. Lesotho is currently contemplating a 51% indigenisation strategy similar to that of Zimbabwe.
关键因素包括：Essential elements include:
●振兴当地经济 Local empowerment
●当地参与 Local participation
● 雇佣和当地成分 Employment and local content
● 采购和企业发展 Procurement and enterprise development
● 社区和可持续发展 Community and sustainable development
Mitigating the risks of resource nationalism
The risks associated with resource nationalism for foreign investors can be mitigated in a variety of ways, including:
Understanding the local laws and how they are implemented in practice
It is important to understand fiscal, employment and indigenisation laws in particular. Due consideration needs to be given to how and through which jurisdiction the entry should be structured to ensure not only commercial and tax efficiency, but also to take advantage of favourable bilateral investment treaties where available. Investment protection can be achieved through the use of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs).
The nature of the investment structure will generally be determined by the intent of the investor (i.e. a short-term view of establishing and selling or a long-term view of investing throughout the life of the mine).
Another consideration relates to whether the entire project should be housed in one entity or whether other functions such as management, marketing/ offtake and/or beneficiation should be housed in separate entities.
The relevant entities themselves should be established with a view of the investing company to introducing local participants, particularly with regard to fiscal and control requirements.
Selecting local participants
As more and more emphasis is being placed on community and employee participation and the introduction of local investors, the selection and interests of these stakeholders should be carefully considered and aligned with those of the investing company.
Many investors make the mistake taking a formulaic approach to the formation of local investor consortiums comprising of what are perceived to be key interest groupings. It is not uncommon to see members of such groupings (brought together under artificial circumstances without aligned interests) descending into infighting and stalling project development as a result.
Furthermore, in certain jurisdictions, due consideration needs to be given to whether or not any of the potential local participants/ beneficiaries are subject to international sanctions as this will have implications for the investor and how it structures its investment. Due diligence on potential partners is key, as is ensuring that all documentation (including the constitutional documents of the entities established for the project) incorporate appropriate mechanisms for dealing with such contingencies.
Structuring the local participant's entry into, and participation in, the project appropriately
The flow of financial rewards is vital in ensuring a project moves forward. It is therefore generally best to structure a trickle dividend to local partners while their buy-in is being settled.
It is also important to structure an investment in a way that ensures that the investor receives an equity return on both the buy-in by the local participants and on any disproportionate funding which the investor may need to advance to the company.
It should also be borne in mind that negotiations are often with political figures as opposed to administrative officials. Being able to handle such
negotiation scenarios effectively is paramount for successful investments in mining projects in sub-Saharan Africa.
Establishing a "social licence to operate"
The way the investor conducts itself is important in establishing trust with stakeholders at a national, state/ provincial and local level. Activities to consider include:
employing locals and providing skills development and training;
emphasising local procurement of goods and services;
adhering to local laws, particularly environmental and health and safety laws (if these are absent, ensuring that international best practice is adopted);
observing and respecting local customs; and
implementing and/or facilitating host community development programs (a key success factor here is substantive interaction, buy-in and determination by the host community itself), i.e. a bottom up rather than top down approach；
conducting research, engaging with local communities and government agencies and building support for the project will diminish the risks of it being stalled down the line.
应对腐败 Dealing with corruption
It is a mistake for investors to assume that it is impossible to do business in Africa without engaging in corruption.
To operate productively in African countries, mining companies should:
understand the environment they are working in and follow the rules rigorously;
make it clear to public officials from the outset that they are not willing to pay bribes or get involved in any sort of corruption;
implement an internal zero-tolerance policy.
非洲领先的律师事务所 — Webber Wentzel律师事务所矿业团队合伙人。擅长非洲矿业项目的结构设计、并购、税务、矿业交易融资和矿业领域的跨境交易，业务覆盖非洲 20多个国家。拥有南非律师资格，同时是英格兰和威尔士的出庭律师。 bruce.
非洲领先的综合性律师事务所，在多家国际法律评级机构排名中名列前茅。有 150名合伙人和 440余名法律专业人员，在约翰内斯堡和开普敦设有办公室。客户包括南非 100强公司，其中包括银行 &金融、建筑 &能源、保险、媒体、矿产、石油 &天然气、私募股权、房地产和通信领域。该所与多家律所合作，已为客户在非洲撒哈拉以南地区大多数国家的跨境交易提供法律服务。 www.webberwentzel.com